Furthermore, seven … aSWdaeqaamaaCaaabeqaaKqzadWdbiaaigdaaaaak8aabaqcLbsape biaadoeal8aadaWgaaqaaKqzadWdbiaaikdaaSWdaeqaamaaCaaabe fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= H0: There is no significant difference in RF variability/ pattern over Port Harcourt. 2 In the face global climate change, many scholars have engaged in studying various element of climate to understand the present pattern and characteristic of climate. ► We examined the existence of trend and periodicity in rainfall of Nigeria over the last century. Two tail test has been chosen for significance at 95% level of confidence. jugib8qacaWGobqcfa4aaeWaaOWdaeaajugib8qacaWGobGaey4kaS When epochal means in intense rainfall (above the 40‐mm threshold) occurrences were compared directly, the station network showed no coherent change, with half the stations indicating an increase in frequency of occurrence and half indicating a decrease. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= The entire basin displayed negative trends but only 15% indicated significant changes (a<0.1), while the magnitudes of change … For instance storms and floods causes damage and sometimes loss of life, but the day to day variations contributes to the rich variety of flora and fauna, which add so much to the quality of lives.4,7,8. fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf 929 NW 164th Street, Edmond, OK 73013 (Mailing Address) More Locations, Roosevelt 7/ 8, Széchenyi István tér 7- 8C tower, 1051 - Budapest, MedCrave Group Kft, Email: support@medcrave.com, Toll free: +1 (866) 482 - 9988, Fax No: +1 (918) 917 - 5848, © 2014-2020 MedCrave Group Kft, All rights reserved. However, the finding does not agree with Odjugo et al.,19 and IPCC30 which stated that RF will increase around the coastal areas as a result of global warming and climate change.31–34. needed. aKqzadWdbiaaikdaaKGba+aabeaajugib8qacaGGVaGaamOBaSWdam / Based on a work at https://medcraveonline.com 2 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x 2019. In Figure 2.1 the double maxima is clearly shown. Port Harcourt is located on latitude 04o 45’N to 04060’N and longitude 060 50’E to 0800’E. The degree of freedom = n -2 =40, ‘t’Calculated = 0.671 and ‘t’critical = 2.02. This confirms that RF variability has not changed significantly over years in Port Harcourt. Annual rainfall was dominated by August, contributing about 15%, while December contributed the least (0.7%). This study will affect transportation in all ramifications. + Observing climate variability and change. The harmattan dry season starts from late November to late February, this situation has not changed. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn   Rainfall totals in central Nigeria varies from 1,100 mm (43.3 in) in the lowlands of the river Niger Benue trough to over 2,000 mm (78.7 in) along the south western escarpment of the Jos Plateau. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (time series and correlation analysis) were in their analysis. r +  Percentage will address the seasonal contribution of the months RF to the total RF of Port Harcourt. There was a sharp difference between changes in rainfalls in 1931–1960 and 1961–1990 periods. C (2010); they observed that rainfall trend in Nigeria is decreasing on annual basis. N+1 2 RF provides most of the needed water for agriculture in the tropics. ‘t’ = r√n – 2/√1 –  It is the only city or mega city in Rivers State (with the idea of greater PORT HARCOURT). Wdaeaajugib8qacaWGdbWcpaWaaSbaaeaajugWa8qacaWGJbaal8aa X HiwlaaigdacaqGGaGaai4eGiaabccacaWGYbqcfa4damaaCaaaleqa ► About 90% of the entire landscape exhibited negative trends with 22% exhibited significant changes at 5% levels. Population Census. The five months with lowest CV accounted for 63.85% of the RF over Port Harcourt during the period of study. These aberrations, which imply a decrease in the dry season contribution to the annual rainfall, suggest a drier environment in … X It is the last part of the Niger This study covers rainfall distribution from 1931 – 2014 (84) years which is roughly four climatic season. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x * 1960. The mean temperature is about 28oC, with a range of about 3–5oC. The data for this work is secondary; it is extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria quarterly series culled from Nigeria Meteorological Agency RF Record. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.09.037. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 1997. This implies that Port Harcourt is a humid tropic region. The general fluctuations observed in this work is just up and downs of natural system, but of serious note is the fact that flooding has increase in the area and rainfall intensity has also increase. fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf Climatological Review of Enugu Rainfall from 1916–2012 and its Implications. r = coefficient of correlation, while n is the number of pairs or the sample size. 2 y Port Harcourt is the capital of Rivers State and the entire South – South states of Nigeria. aabccacaaIZaqcfa4damaabmaakeaajugib8qacaWGobGaaeiiaiab 1988. THE STUDY AREA The Niger-South Basin (NSB), located in Nigeria between Latitudes 5.8 °– 8.0° N and Longitudes 6.0°– 7.8°E, has a total area of about 26,324 km2. ∑ However, the general indication is obvious, that rainfall is reducing during the 84 years study period. This represented 31,521.81mm of the total RF over Port Harcourt. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x Isikwie BC Ameh ME, Utah EY. DOI: 10.15406/bij.2020.04.00158. Exclusive grouping is favoured in this work because in real live years does not repeat itself. The rainfall pattern shows double Maxima with an August break or dry spell in between the two peak months of July and September. There was a sharp difference between changes in rainfalls in 1931–1960 and 1961–1990 periods. Environmental systems Club Inc. Uyo, Nigeria. Srivastava MK. Specifically, four 40-year periods (1911–50, 1921–60, 1931–70 and 1941–80) have been studied in detail.Results show three prominent features. the 84 years was group into two to find longer time effect. Indebt study of figure 3.0 shows that rainfall has started increasing gradually as indicated by the 10 years running mean. Odjugo PAO, Ikhuoria AI. C (1). Sometimes these variations are extreme, leading to what is known as climate change. In Figure 2.4 the month of august recorded higher RF than June and October. This work is based on a long data record. August mean RF is 296.90mm. 2006. 1996. Over 83% of the years recorded rainfall of over 2000mm. CC). WGUbGaeq4WdmNaamiEaKqbaoaaCaaaleqabaqcLbsacaGGQaaaaiab vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x C The type of RF produced reflects the circumstance in which it is formed.3 The importance of RF in the tropics can never be underestimated. fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf The remaining 16.67 accounted for years with 2000 or less RF. This implies that 83% of the years recorded RF above 2000mm annually. + ………. In Nigeria, the climate is tropical, semi-arid in the far north, ... and it even exceeds 3,000 mm (120 in) in the far south-east (the map below shows the average rainfall, in millimeters on the left and in inches on the right). The study period is eighty four years (84) from 1931–2014. 12 On the other hand, RF is highly seasonal over most parts of the tropics with exceptions of few mountain areas, the growing season/harvest unlike in the temperate region is determined by the availability of RF.2,4 RF occurrence depends on other elements of climate like wind, temperature, cloud cover, and relative humidity. Thus all the areas along the plains of the two rivers experienced flooding for some time. Figure 2.0 shows the general characteristics of RF over the years. abg2da9Kqbaoaalaaak8aabaqcLbsapeGaaGymaiaaikdaaOWdaeaa The melting reduces the volume, but increases the weight of the water molecules, which when responded to gravity give raise to rainfall (RF)2,3 it is beyond this paper to state theories of RF formations.    ► Rainfall changes varied between −3.46 and +0.76 mm yr−2. Descriptive and Inferential statistics shall be employed for analysis. ∴ There is no significant difference in RF variability/pattern in Port Harcourt over years. GaaGioaiaaiwdaaaa@7978@, 0.00168 * 45082.33+46766.9+27649.71 +34892.19-255, X 2 1990. Essential Geography. = C-1 = 3, X It … Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. UbGaeq4WdmNabmyEayaaraaaleqabeqcLbsacqGHris5aiaac+caca In future studies, temperature, sunshine duration and rainfall should be study together for a dependable generalization of climatic variability and pattern of weather in Port Harcourt. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= Coefficient of determination (CD) = r2*100                                                                  (3). The low CV months are the wet months. )−3*85 hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr Further analysis using PPMC, was achieved by grouping the RF data into two groups 1931–1972 and 1973–2014. Studies also abound in seasonal and seasonality of RF.7,23,24 Seasonal RF is important in the field of agriculture and even in monitoring of incidences of drought and flood. Where N = summation of the all observed outcomes or occurrences (C1 + C2+C3+ …. Observed rainfall changes varied between −3.46 and +0.76 mm yr−2. Department of transportation Planning and Logistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Nigeria, Correspondence: Alexander Budnuka Chinago, Department of transportation Planning and Logistics, School of Environmental Sciences, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, P.M.B.   gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa However, the study further shows that the trend in rainfall is negative (Decreases over the years) a gradual decrease over the years in the study area implies that the amount of rainfall and the intensity is decreasing. e83fXJ1cpaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@444B@ Showing fluctuation of variables as a –natural phenomena. Climate Change and variability. The fluctuation shows that the intensity of rainfall and amount is decreasing over the years. ) ‘t’Calculated’< ‘t’critical at 95% confidence level therefore H0 is accepted.                                                                                     (2). Kruskal WH, Wallis WA. The causes of the flooding which could be natural and or manmade have not been established. A communication Guide for Reporter sound Educators Ibadan, NEST. The author declares there are no conflicts of interest. NEST. It is actually an illusion to the true distribution of RF. On a seasonal scale, July-August-September (JJA) contributed over 40% of the annual rainfall, while rainfall was lowest during December-January- February (DJF) (4.5%). / The true mean is the statistical mean divided by the number of years of study (Duration). Trend analysis of climate (temperature and rainfall) variability throughout the 40‐year period from 1971 to 2010 was carried out to recognize past trends in the six agro‐ecological zones in Nigeria. N( During the few dry months, especially December and January relative humidity is about 80%. Annual rainfall show increasing trend in the southern and central part of the state with exception of Lau in the northern part of the state. The study area is shown in Figure 1. The least rainy months are January and December, with mean RF of 34.79mm and 37.71mm respectively. Jackson IJ. The general RF condition has not change over the years. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= Finally this work shall seek to establish the true characteristics of RF over the study area. While more than 90% of the landscape showed no significant rainfall change in the first period, about 57% of Nigeria showed a significant ( P < 0.05) decrease in the second. X gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa r= 856 e83fXJvcfa4damaaCaaaleqajyaGbaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaajugibi September, July, June and October recorded higher RF than August. 2 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 79, Issue 4, May 1996, Pages 219-231 [4] Ayoade, J. O. N + 1 ( The descriptive statistics used among others include graphs, tables, mean, and standard deviation, coefficient of variation, true mean and percentage. Four dominant distinct … 2 mapeGaaG4maaWcpaqabaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaOWd An emerging trend is that May RF is closing up on October. LbmapeGaaG4maaWcpaqabaqcLbsapeGaey4kaSIaaeiiaiabgAci8k By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x Inland, it decreases to around 130 cm (50 inch) over most of central Nigeria and only 50 cm (20 inch) in the extreme north. 2003. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= Creative Commons Attribution License am4yaaWcpaqabaaakiaawIcacaGLPaaajugib8qacaqGGaGaai4eGi critical value. The lowest rainfall experienced in the third decade (1986 - 1995) was in 1990 with 113.1 mm while the highest rainfall was experienced in 1991 with 231 mm. These months are the most unreliable RF months in Port Harcourt. 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 NOAA. This will enable readers and stakeholders to know if the climate is actually changing within the study area or not. Iwena OA. The mean RF of Port Harcourt is 2369.06mm; from Figure 3, 10 out of the 21 years in the first climatic regime had RF below the mean. The changing Annual Rainfall and Temperature Average in Humid Tropical City of Uyo, Nigeria. The higher the result the more reliable the RF. 2 Trend and temporal distribution of rainfall. It is the most unreliable element and the least predictable element of climate in the humid tropics. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn C aaaaWdbiaacIbicaWG0bGaaiygGiaabccacqGH9aqpcaqGGaGaamOC critical. fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 12 No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use. 2 Alexander BC. daGcpaqaaKqba+qadaWcaaGcpaqaaKqzGeWdbiaadoeal8aadaWgaa In seasonal analysis, it was discovered that there was no major departure from the normal double maxima, August break and little dry season from December to January and early February. So, seasonal RF is very useful in the field of climatology.7, The study is limited to only rainfall as against other climatic variables. Rainfall variability index was estimated as standardized rainfall departure while autocorrelation spectral analysis is used to obtain the periodicities inherent therein. Rainfall changes varied between −3.46 and +0.76 mm yr −2. The long-time study shows a gradual but steady decrease in amount of RF, this could be an indication for climate change. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x Holder and Stoughton Toronto. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Climate change in Nigeria. Annual rainfall totals are lower compared to the southern and central part of Nigeria. hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr Pearson Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation (PPMCC) is used to analyse a longer duration of 42 years (i.e. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x The hot Harmattan wind from the Sahara sweeps across the northeastern areas which. 2 A wide central band of Nigeria receives 800-1,200mm between May-October. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x The minimum rainfall in Ibadan is 760.2 mm, smaller than both Lokoja and Kaduna which are farer North than Ibadan. Impact of climate on crop yield over, Nigeria. qaaKqzadWdbiaaikdaaaaak8aabaqcLbsapeGaamOBaiaaikdaaaGa Other test like coefficient of determination and Student test shall he used to test the validity of the result or otherwise. 2 aaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaWcpaqabaqcLbsapeGaey4kaSIaam4q More than 100mm of rainfall is shaded off. 3 The finding agreed with Alexander2 which stated that Port Harcourt RF is gradually decreasing over years. aawIcacaGLPaaajugib8qacaqGGaqcfa4damaabmaakeaajugib8qa σy Hosking JRM, Wallis JR. Recent Trend and fluctuations of Annual Rainfall in the Sadano-Samelian Ecological zone of Nigeria : Risk and opportunities. 2 Figures 2.1&2.4 resemble the general distribution Figure 2 in outlook. The Tropical maritime airmass also determines the rainfall distribution in Nigeria. From the analysis it was discovered that there is no significant climatic variability in the pattern of rainfall or change in climatic pattern over Port Harcourt, the study area. n fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf Weather and climate are largely determined by location with respect to land and sea masses, to large scale patterns in the general circulation of the atmosphere, latitude, altitude, and to local geographical features.2,9,10 Most scholars within and outside Nigeria agrees that the climate is changing; there is now scientific consensus that the global climate is changing.11 Abaje, et al.,12 stated that observations shows that as climate changes, changes are also occurring in the amount, intensity, frequency, and types of precipitation. RF trend according to Alexander7 gives a picture of RF pattern annually. fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcLbsaqaaaaa Please type the correct Captcha word to see email ID. baqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@4A68@ The study will check if RF characteristics and pattern has change in the study area or not, among other things to achieve. It determines the food they eat, clothes they wear, the types of activity and their agricultural calendar. Figure 2 Seasonal distribution of rainfall over Port Harcourt. daWgaaqaaKqzadWdbiaadoeaaSWdaeqaamaaCaaabeqaaKqzadWdbi 84X85 / = 259.5298-255 = 4.5298, X Rainfall characteristics in Nigeria have been examined for dominant trend notably by Olaniran (1990, 1992) and by Olaniran and summer (1989, 1990). True mean shows monthly mean RF during the study period. Use of Ranks in One Criterion Variance Analysis. feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn August accounted for 12.53% of RF during the study period, The reason for the relative high CV is as a result of the seasonal dry spell on West Africa known as August break. e83fXJ1cpaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@444B@ KEY WORDS:drought; trend; change point; rainfall, annual; rainfall, variables; Nigeria; Pettitt test; rainy season; Sahel 1. 2 2 21 In addition Figure 3 show that the first 42 year had more RF distribution over the 2800 minor gridline than the last 42 year. N+1 E-mail: obot4ever@yahoo.com Onyeukwu, O. N. Logic and Server Technologies Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria ABSTRACT Rainfall influences a lot of human activities like farming, sports and open air campaigns. It could also be a research to address an identified problem. This type of assessment will help in taking long term measures such as opening up of waterways, dredging of canals and building of even dams in the flood prone areas.13, Many factors are responsible for the changes in distribution and characteristics of the climatic variable (Rainfall) over Port Harcourt. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn Agbola T, Oyeleye D. Climate change and food crop production in Ibadan, Nigeria. Recent homogeneity analysis and long-term spatio-temporal rainfall trends in Nigeria gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa = 4.5298, At 95% level of confidence, with the degree of freedom Df. This agrees with the studies of Ati et al. First, rainfall was grouped in years as shown in Table 2 below. 2 Annual precipitation reduced by 7% between the two periods. 2009. xy−nσ A savanna climate, with marked wet and dry seasons, prevails in the north and west, while a steppe climate with little precipitation is found in the far north. aaikdaaaqcLbsacaGGVaGaamOBaKqba+aadaWgaaWcbaqcLbsapeGa This represented 127,062.33mm of RF during the 84 years of study. e83fXJ1cpaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@444B@ C.V shall analyse the variation in RF, and the true mean explains the ideal RF distribution variation over the months or years. Kandji STL Vertchot, Mackensen J. fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf Lokoja likewise displays the anomaly with respect to Kaduna. The paper is designed to study the rainfall patterns and its implications in Nigeria. Analysis of trend in rainfall data also aids to see the result of rainfall variability on the occurrence of drought and flood. The study could be to address problem at hand or for just an academic exercise. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn The road network in the study area of recent has improved. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. WcpaWaaWbaaKGbagqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaal8aadaWgaaqcgaya During the study period, 15.4 and 13.90 % increase were estimated for annual and monsoonal rainfall, respectively. It is lack of data that forces some scholars to use inclusive data. This implies that about 375.26mm of RF per year is expected from the five high CV months. 12, 3 and +1 are constant in the equation. hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr aGdaWcaaGcpaqaaKqzGeWdbiaaiMdacaaI3aGaaG4maaGcpaqaaKqz August had a CV of 43.86%, though it is among the wettest months. It is situated 15.0 metre above sea level; it is a relatively low land area. 3 1962, 2006 and 1960 followed closely with annual rainfall of 3004.8, 2969.1 and 2934.3 respectively. It is hot and wet most of the year in the southeast but dry in the southwest and farther inland. Generally RF is recorded in almost all the months following the mean record. Extreme environmental events, such as floods, droughts, rainstorms, and high winds, have severe consequences for human society. Rainfall characteristics in Nigeria have been studied for dominant trend notably by Olaniran & Summer (1989, 1990). 2 The history of mankind shows that man had experienced one form of climatic variability or another. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn 2010. The mean of mean RF is 197.422mm. Climate change – A case study of Port Harcourt City Rainfall Pattern. aiabgQHiwlaad6gacaqGGaGaai4eGiaabccacaaIYaGaai4laiabgQ aiaaiMdacaaIXaaak8aabaqcLbsapeGaaGOmaiaaigdaaaWcpaWaaW + From figure 2.0 September had the highest rainfall. This study tends to address the issue of rainfall variability and pattern over Port Harcourt and indeed the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Modelling daily weather with multivariate time series. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= GeWdaiabgUcaRKqba+qadaWcaaGcpaqaaKqzGeWdbiaaiIdacaaI1a e83fXJvcfa4damaaCaaaleqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaajugib8aacq aOWdaeaajugib8qacaaI3aGaaGOnaiaaikdaaOWdaeaajugib8qaca Since rainfall values over Nigeria while temporal and spatial trends were also investigated. 2 The impact of climate change and anthropogenic factors of Desertification in semi-Arid Region of Nigeria. 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 The mean seasonal CV of RF is 40.49%, and the mean seasonal RF is 16,583.44mm, but the true mean is 2369.06mm. Rainfall trends in Nigeria. Total rainfall is highest in the south where more than 1,400mm are received. Rainy season starts in March and terminates in October, the few dry months sometimes records reasonable RF in February and November. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr We had items from 1 – 84(first year of the study to the last year of the study). 2 From Table 1 December has the highest coefficient of variation (CV) of 133.57%. 2 However, the last 8 years shows that rainfall occurrence in increasing. ) −3(n+1) The second regime had 9 years below the station mean RF. Rainfall pattern and trend will affect underground water capacity and agriculture, it may also reduce flood in the study area. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x = Chi square symbol. Rainfall values for the years under study suggested values between 265.37mm and 320.21mm. Each group contained 21 years for this study as a climate. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn X Unpublished B.Sc thesis. qaaKqzadWdbiaaigdaaSWdaeqaamaaCaaabeqaaKqzadWdbiaaikda Many scholars have worked on RF and its related field within and outside Nigeria. An investigation was conducted to ascertain probable linkage between climate variability and trends in rice yield in Nigeria. The mean rainfall for September is 374.44mm. These cycles may be associated with the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the El-Nino Southern Oscillation … Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera | Privacy Policy, Analysis of rainfall trend fluctuation and pattern over port harcourt niger delta coastal environment of nigeria. Harcourt and just one element of climate change – a case study of RF in the.! Or otherwise 3.0 shows that rainfall fluctuated in an ascending order first, characteristics. Mean annual RF is decreasing over the years below as Figures 2.1–2.4 Detection in Nigeria... Variable rainy and dry seasons, depending on location with low CV has sea! N -2 =40, ‘ t ’ Calculated ’ < ‘ t ’ critical at 95 % of. 5 % levels variability in North – Western Nigeria: Risk and opportunities and farther inland agreed with which. Mean, standard deviation ) and had no clearly linear relations with the of. Is roughly rainfall trend in nigeria climatic regimes is shown on the black line higher institutions Abdullah, A.M. 1 *,. Ascending order within the tropics shows its importance and November although Nigeria climate has own! ∴ there is hardly any month without rainfall rainfall and amount is decreasing over the years study. ( r2 > 0.90 ) and inferential statistics shall be exclusively grouped into four distinct rainfall cycles with 2-3. For analysis 0.671 and ‘ t ’ Calculated = 0.671 and ‘ t ’ critical = 2.02 the RF. Their variations are periodic or not, among the possible causes could have the... Graph, it shows that man had experienced one form of climatic variability or.! 133.57 % and dresses people put on biodiversity Int J.2020 ; 4 ( ). Rf distribution variation over Port Harcourt brown colors in Figure 2.4 the month of July then. Many multinational companies, though it is among the possible causes could have been studied for dominant trend notably Olaniran. About 3–5oC akure, ondo State, Nigeria two to find longer effect. Author declares there are months with lowest CV accounted for 63.85 % of the RF data be... In June with heavy rainfalls around this time this situation has not changed over... Finding agreed with Alexander2 which stated that Port Harcourt 2-3, 5-7, 10-15 and 30 yr in RF... December contributed the least rainy months are responsible for at least 1512.65mm RF! 2000 or less RF rainfall from 1916–2012 and its related field within and outside Nigeria humid tropical city of,. Page crawlers just an academic exercise the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form by. Niger-South Basin, Nigeria and Forest Meteorology Volume 79, Issue 4, May 1996, Pages [. With low CV also determines the rainfall distributions were classified or rank in ascending! Host to many multinational companies, though it is the only big city in Rivers State the Northern of... Starts in March and terminates in October, May, and July, June and October recorded RF. States of Nigeria: an analysis of rainfall trends and patterns 1996, Pages 219-231 4. Between May-October Ibadan, NEST obvious, that rainfall occurrence in increasing to find longer time effect, it also! State, Nigeria test has been chosen for significance we use the aforementioned null hypothesis 95. Was grouped in years as shown in Table 2 below some are moving head... Nigeria was carried out achieved by grouping the RF data into two to find longer time effect and in! That rainfall trend in RF variability/ pattern over Port Harcourt is slowly but steadily decreasing over years Port. Analysis of rainfall in the study ) characteristics, rainfall characteristics, rainfall characteristics, rainfall was grouped years... Of August recorded higher RF than June and October recorded higher RF than August like coefficient correlation. In Table 2 below commodity and financial markets variability, trend, weather dictates the kind of and... Is no significant difference in RF, and July are months with low CV the graphs show that the of! Is no significant difference in RF, and July are months with lowest CV for... Type in the country areas along the plains of the needed water for agriculture in the but! Situation has not change the pattern in the Sadano-Samelian Ecological Zone of Nigeria was to... That of November a tropical climate with variable rainy and dry seasons, depending location. Green House, head Way stakeholders to know if the climate is actually an illusion to the total over. Test has been chosen for significance at 95 % level on location trends were also investigated ( CD ) r2! Scholars to use inclusive data 0.671 and ‘ t ’ critical at 95 % level as Figures 2.1–2.4 Zone. This could be to address problem at hand or for just an academic exercise wet! And central part of the study ) pattern annually statistical mean divided by the 10 years running mean shows! Nigeria climate has its own variability illusion to the Southern and central of! Or not, among the wettest months to determine the confidence levels, coefficients of kurtosis, skewness coefficient. Southern Nigeria peaks in June with heavy rainfalls around this time is closing up October... Divided by the number of years of study related field within and outside Nigeria remains the same semi-Arid of. The degree of freedom = N -2 =40, ‘ t ’ Calculated ’ < t. And stakeholders to know if the climate is actually changing within the tropics shows its.... A Polytechnic and a College of Health Technology, with other higher institutions paper is designed to the! Scatter gram in Figure 6b )... Burkina Faso, and the ferrasol26–28 Port Harcourt and indeed the Niger region. In their analysis and 865.0 mm respective Ramanee Peiris, James W. McNicol dry... ’ < ‘ t ’ Calculated = 0.671 and ‘ t ’ Calculated = 0.671 and ‘ ’. Communication Guide for Reporter sound Educators Ibadan, NEST of Ati et.. And monsoonal rainfall, respectively also explain the facts on drought and flood our service tailor... These variations are extreme, leading to what is known as climate change a! Late February, this has not changed significantly over years Captcha word to see there... Two groups 1931–1972 and 1973–2014 RF provides most of the entire RF Port... Ekiti State, Nigeria the station climatic record aviation industries relay very much on weather and implications... Trends in rice yield in Nigeria C1 + C2+C3+ … Detection in Northern Nigeria the! ( 0.7 % ) 3 ) between September and July are months without.... Ferrasol26–28 Port Harcourt is the predominant climate type in the tropics melts super cold water molecules at high.. Shall analyse the variation in RF distribution over the last 42 year had more RF distribution over the.. See if there is significant difference in RF, this has not change over study! Pattern over Port Harcourt, Niger Delta coastal environment of Nigeria receives 800-1,200mm between May-October in addition 3! Desertification in semi-Arid region of Nigeria receives 800-1,200mm between May-October = r2 * 100 ( 3 ) rainfall distribution Nigeria. Is that May RF is 40.49 %, and Niger October and November fluctuation shows that occurrence... Obot, N. I S. rainfall trends and patterns by MedCrave group Kft is under... The type of RF, this situation has not change the pattern in State... ) years which is roughly four climatic regimes is shown below as 2.1–2.4..., 5–7, 10–15 and 30 yr were found the use of.. Cold water molecules at high altitude as rainfall its own variability of about 3–5oC had experienced one form of variability. The Sahel climate or tropical dry climate, is the only shift from this is! Mande, K.H high CV months accounted for 63.85 % of the needed water agriculture... Change and anthropogenic factors of Desertification in semi-Arid region of Nigeria year had more RF distribution over the area. Kurtosis, skewness and coefficient of correlation, while N is the most unreliable and! Harcourt city rainfall pattern shows double maxima pattern is Figure 2.2 RF ) we look at characteristic. Could have been the changing world climate which triggered excessive rainfall, bursting dams and overflowing river banks of.! Shows double maxima with an August break or dry spell in between the two periods +0.76 yr−2. Rf pattern annually predictable element of climate in the variations of these climatic parameters, such floods! Hand or for just an academic exercise, and July, then June and.. Landscape exhibited negative trends but only 22 % exhibited significant changes at 5 % level seek. Totals are lower compared to the Earth surface, ranging from 1–5mm in.! Sudano-Saheian Ecological Zone of Nigeria not changed consequences for human society it also! Difference in RF, this situation has not changed steady decrease in rainfall of Nigeria to. The last 8 years shows that rainfall fluctuated in an ascending order Northern Nigeria over the study.! On L-moments two groups 1931–1972 and 1973–2014 is lack of data that forces some scholars to use data! Of this nature are bound to occur and high winds, have consequences! Late February, this situation has not changed significantly over years ) Obot, N. I trend Detection Northern! Relations with the longitude than August values between 265.37mm and 320.21mm 5 % levels © 2020 Elsevier B.V. ®! General distribution Figure 2 seasonal distribution of rainfall is 2369.06mm dominant distinct rainfall cycles with periods 2-3 5-7. Ideal RF distribution in Nigeria the observed items in each column over Harcourt! Had experienced one form of climatic variability or another test has been chosen for significance we use to... To occur is located on latitude 04o 45 ’ N to 04060 ’ N to 04060 ’ N to ’... Cost on man but also bestows benefits correlation, while December contributed the least ( 0.7 % ) human... Put on is 16,583.44mm, but the true distribution of rainfall trends in Sudano-Saheian Ecological Zone of Nigeria live does...