Rachels raises two objections to this argument. That is, it reduces what seems to be a plurality or a multiplicity of motives to a single kind. Also, the last bit, about the “incredible breadth of human…” is unsupported. The Argument. Because psychological egoism states that every act of every person is motivated by self-interest, it is universal. The first argument involves the claim that all acts are selfish because the person performing the acts always does what she most wants to do. Before reading, I was naïve and therefore indifferent to these concepts of egoism; however, I now agree that psychological egoism is an invalid thesis. Psychological ego-ism … The criticism is this. It describes human nature as being wholly self-centered and self-motivated. A fourth argument against ethical egoism is just that: ethical egoism does not count as a moral theory. So far we haven’t been given any reason to suppose that it is in fact true. Because psychological egoism states that all motivations are, in the final analysis, selfish, it is reductive. Ethical egoism goes against the principle of impartiality. The basic assumption made by most moral philosophers is that we shouldn’t discriminate against people for arbitrary reasons. Psychological egoism is the view that everyone always acts selfishly. Any objection to psychological egoism that mentions pleasure felt for any other sake than self-interest is a stawman, it argues against something psychological egoism isnt saying. PREMISE #1: Psychological Egoism is not a self-apparent truth. Psychological egoism as an empirical theory commits the fallacy of hasty generalization or converse accident. Rachels identifies two arguments thought to support psychological egoism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The Refutation of Psychological Egoism: arguments to the conclusion that the generalization everyone acts from the motive of self-interest is false. Anyway, thats all, if it helped at all. Psychological egoism asserts that it is impossible for anyone to do anything other than seek his own good. These implications of PE are the kinds of things that we would have to buy, if it were true. 0. The second argument for egoism I've dubbed The Rolling Stones argument. It is a view endorsed by several philosophers, among them Thomas Hobbes and Friedrich Nietzsche, and has played a role in some game theory. One might set various constraints on a theory’s being a moral theory. Rachels’ “Egoism and Moral Skepticism” provides us with strong arguments in favor of psychological and ethical egoism, which he effectively refutes by highlighting their weaknesses. Psychological egoism is different from ethical egoism in their “direction of fit” to the world. Many of the arguments oppose the theory of psychological egoism which states that human acts are selfish because people act according to their own desire. of the argument.3 The criticism is intended to be a reductio ad absurdum, an attempt to show that anyone who maintains both psychological egoism and ethical egoism is committed to a position that no one can accept. Psychological Egoism 662 Words | 3 Pages. So let us take a look at the arguments that might be offered in its defense. 6.2 Arguments for psychological egoism. Start studying Psychological Egoism and David Hume's Arguments Against. OVERALL POINTS= 10+20+70=100 This argument argues that people’s actions are done to get benefits such as fame, becomes popular, liked by others and so forth. Many of these constraints are met by ethical egoism — the formal constraints, for example, that moral claims must be prescriptive and universalizable. 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